The electronic component industry involves various industrial fields and plays an extremely important role and role in the development of the national economy. It is one of the strategic, basic and leading industries that are related to the overall development of the economy and society as a whole and national security. The role of transformation and upgrading plays an extremely important role. Driven by the trend of deep integration of the two industries, the status of the electronic component industry has risen from the core foundation of the information industry to the foundation of the entire industry, and has become the key to the support and long-term development of technological innovation in the entire industrial field.
In the past 40 years of reform and opening up, under the leadership of the party, China has formed an electronic component industrial system with the largest scale of production and sales, complete categories, and complete industrial chain. The number of enterprises in the electronic component industry and overall sales are all in electronic information. The forefront of manufacturing has made important contributions to the national economy and national defense construction.
Industry scale The world's first technological innovation has made a breakthrough. First, the industry scale is the world's first. If before the reform and opening up, China realized the transformation of the electronic component industry from scratch, then in the 40 years after the reform and opening up, China's electronic component industry has realized a small to large transformation. In 1976, the sales of China's electronic components industry was only 1.05 billion yuan. In 2017, the sales of China's electronic components industry reached 2.1114 billion yuan, with an average annual growth rate of 20.4%. Among the branches of electronic components, except for a few products, the output and sales of most of the products are also ranked first in the world. China has become the world's largest electronic component production base.
Second, the product category is relatively complete. In the 40 years of reform and opening up, China's electronic component industry has become a large-scale industrial cluster of nearly 4 million enterprises with a total of nearly 10,000 enterprises of different sizes, including state-owned enterprises, private enterprises, and foreign-funded enterprises. Almost all electronic component products are developed and produced by Chinese companies (including multinational companies in China). It can be said that China is one of the three countries with the most complete product categories in the global electronic components field (the other two countries are United States and Japan). The electronic component products produced in China play an important role in the fields of electronics, communications, home appliances, automobiles, industry, energy, aviation, aerospace, military, medical and other fields. Third, ethnic enterprises have emerged. After 40 years of competition with international advanced counterparts, China has already honed a number of outstanding national enterprises with leading production and sales scale, excellent technical quality and standardized management. These companies have an extremely important influence on the global market in their respective fields, and some of them are invisible champions in specific product areas.
Fourth, there has been a breakthrough in technological innovation. In the past 40 years of reform and opening up, China's electronic component manufacturing industry has embarked on a technological development path of introduction, digestion and absorption, and innovation. At the beginning of the reform and opening up, almost all of the electronic component production technology and production equipment in the national sector were introduced to developed countries and regions such as the United States, Japan, and Europe. In the process of production practice, Chinese enterprises have gradually mastered advanced electronic component production technology, and formed the ability of independent innovation through research on product performance, reliability and production efficiency improvement.
The high-end application supporting ability is insufficient, and the upstream industry chain is not perfect.
In the 40 years of reform and opening up, China's electronic components industry has made great achievements, but there are still five problems.
First, the supporting capabilities of high-end applications are insufficient. Compared with foreign electronic components developed countries and regions, the overall technical level of local enterprises in China's electronic components industry is still not high, especially the lack of international leading electronic component technology. Most electronic component companies can only produce lead type and large energy consumption. Traditional electronic components, such products are often low-end products that American and Japanese companies give up because of low profit levels.
Most companies do not have any patented technology and can only follow and imitate foreign technology. Many new key electronic components need to be imported from abroad. Because domestic products generally have problems such as poor consistency, low reliability, and incomplete specifications, the application fields of products can only be limited to the lower requirements of home appliances, consumer electronics, etc., high-end applications of electronic components such as automobiles, industry, energy, and major equipment. The market is mostly monopolized by foreign brands.
Second, the upstream industry chain is not complete enough. The development of upstream materials, equipment, spare parts and other industries for the electronic components industry is seriously out of touch with the development of the electronic components industry. Many key raw materials, equipment and spare parts need to be imported from abroad. Due to the wide variety of electronic components and many electronic components that need to be customized according to the needs of different downstream users, the materials, equipment and parts required by the electronic components industry are dedicated, but many domestic upstream companies are reluctant to develop electronic products in a targeted manner. Component-specific materials, equipment, and parts. High-end materials, equipment and parts are heavily dependent on foreign countries. It is a huge obstacle to the transformation and upgrading of China's electronic components industry, and there is also a major risk of being “sickered” by foreign countries.
Third, the influence of national brands is small. From a holistic perspective, the national enterprises in the electronic component industry in China are still dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, with weak strength, low margins and low industry concentration. More than 40% of the total sales of electronic components in China are contributed by foreign-funded enterprises. In the branch of multiple electronic components, there is a huge gap between China's national enterprises and the world's giants.
Fourth, the talent training and management mechanism is unreasonable. The society has a low level of awareness of the electronic component manufacturing industry. The electronic component manufacturing industry is regarded as a traditional and low-end industry. Among the high-end talents graduated from major universities in China, there are very few electronic component R&D and production enterprises. High-end talents in the industry are scarce. At the same time, the defects of the personnel training and management system have caused great constraints on the development of China's electronic component industry.
Fifth, the military and civilian dual-track system needs to be improved. After the reform and opening up, many state-owned electronic component companies entered the civilian product sector through restructuring, and China's domestic private electronic component companies began to grow. However, the unique dual-track system of military and civilians in China's electronic components industry is no longer adapted to the changes in the new market situation. In the field of military products, due to the lack of effective international market competition, the product technology of state-owned enterprises does not meet the needs of the civilian market, and most of them are not smooth. Most of the private enterprises, despite their rapid technological advancement, are fully capable of undertaking the tasks of the defense industry. However, due to the strict review of defense industrial products and the small number of orders, the payment cycle is long and unwilling to enter. This has caused many state-owned electronic component companies in China to rely heavily on military engineering projects, and their technological innovation capabilities are seriously inadequate.
Future development ideas and suggestions for China's electronic components industry
To achieve the great goal of becoming a global power electronics manufacturing country, it is recommended to focus on the following aspects:
First of all, the importance of new electronic components will be raised to the same level as the integrated circuit industry, and a special support fund for new electronic component products will be established to make up for shortcomings in the industry as soon as possible.
Secondly, it will give more preferential tax policies to enterprises engaged in the research and development and production of new electronic components, and promote enterprises to introduce talents, cultivate talents, and improve their independent innovation capabilities.
Thirdly, through mergers and acquisitions to improve industry concentration, strengthen the national enterprises' anti-risk ability and brand reputation, especially to promote the excellent national enterprises of electronic components through mergers and acquisitions or independent research and development into the key areas of key materials, equipment, spare parts, etc. Self-supporting ability.
Finally, speed up the improvement of the industrial ecosystem with the combination of production, education and research, and form a mechanism for deep cooperation between electronic components and national enterprises and industrial enterprises in the long-term missing application fields of automobiles and industrial equipment in China. In the research and development stage of the product, we will consider how the supporting capacity of electronic components and national enterprises will form a virtuous circle for the excellent development of national enterprises in the domestic industrial machine industry to support the common development of domestic electronic components and national enterprises.
At present, China's electronic components industry is in the process of accelerating transformation and upgrading, realizing the transformation from large to strong, and the environment is complicated by the rise of international trade protectionism, the slowdown of domestic macroeconomics, the rapid increase of labor costs, and the increasing constraints of environment and resources. Under the background, China's electronic components industry must grasp the significant opportunities for the vigorous development of emerging strategic industries such as 5G communications, new energy vehicles, Internet of Things, and new mobile intelligent terminals, and strive to catch up with the world's advanced level for China's electronic information industry and the entire industry. Healthy development escorts.