Introduction: Over one billion transistors are produced in the size of the nail covers, and each wire is equivalent to one-thousandth of human hair. As a strategic industry that affects the country’s overall competitiveness, the level of integrated circuit technology and industry have been It has become an important indicator of a country’s industrial competitiveness and comprehensive national strength.
More than 1 billion transistors are manufactured in the size of the fingernail, and each wire is equivalent to one-thousandth of human hair. As a strategic industry that affects the nation’s overall competitiveness, the level of integrated circuit technology and industry scale have become a measure. An important symbol of a country’s industrial competitiveness and overall national strength.
High-end equipment and materials have grown from scratch, manufacturing processes and packaging integration have grown from weak to weak, and the technological innovation synergy mechanism has gained momentum. Since the implementation of major national science and technology major projects, the phased goal of creating an integrated circuit manufacturing innovation system has been achieved, and efforts are being made to crack. China's high-end chip field, "the lack of core pain."
Over 1 billion transistors have been created on the size of the fingernail. How difficult is a small chip?
This is an unavoidable innovation contest. Competitors are not at the starting line.
For a long time, China's integrated circuit industry has been subject to various limitations in the advanced manufacturing equipment, materials, and processes introduced by the West. High-end chips mainly rely on imports. With the rapid development of China's national economy, especially the acceleration of the informationization process, the demand for integrated circuit products has continued to grow rapidly. Since 2006, it has surpassed oil to become China's largest import product. Since 2013, imports have exceeded US$200 billion annually.
Why is it so difficult to have a small chip? Ye Tianchun, director of the Institute of Microelectronics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a special technician chief, told reporters that we believe that no one has ever seen an atom, and that the difficulty in manufacturing an integrated circuit (chip) is atomic. Take the 28 nanometer technology as an example, the degree of integration is equivalent to producing more than 1 billion transistors in the area of the fingernail cover, and each wire is equivalent to one thousandth of a human hair.
“Integrated circuit manufacturing technology represents the highest level of micro-manufacturing in the world today, bringing together the culmination of human ultra-fine processing technology. As a result, the integrated circuit industry is a comprehensive embodiment of a country’s high-end manufacturing capabilities and is a global strategic high-tech competition for high-tech national competitiveness. Ye Tianchun said.
Experts pointed out that the challenges faced by China in the field of chips are mainly reflected in the following aspects: First, China's integrated circuit high-end equipment and materials are basically in a blank state, relying entirely on imports, and the industrial chain is seriously missing; second, the integration of manufacturing processes and packaging is weak. Third, the lack of independent intellectual property rights severely restricts the development of independent innovation in integrated circuit companies in China.
Modern industry's "food": strong chips are strong in the industry
If the driving force behind the creation of the industrial age is the steam engine, and the driving force in the creation of the electric age is electric power, then the driving force in creating the information age is integrated circuits.
"If the chip is strong, the industry is strong, the chip is economic, and there is no chip without security." Ye Tianchun said that in the information age, integrated circuits are the core cornerstones of computers, mobile phones, home appliances, automobiles, high-speed railways, power grids, medical instruments, robots, etc. Industrial control and other electronic products and systems are inseparable from the integrated circuit. Without the support of the integrated circuit industry, the information society has lost its "foundation" and integrated circuits have therefore been hailed as the "food" of modern industry.
After special implementation, a number of critical equipment for integrated circuit manufacturing achieved a breakthrough from scratch. Ye Tianchun said that more than 30 key equipments such as domestic etching machines, magnetron sputtering, ion implanters, plasma chemical vapor deposition, and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition equipment have been successfully developed and passed the assessment of large production lines, achieving mass sales at home and abroad. The overall technical level reached 28 nanometers, and some 14 nanometer key equipment began to enter the customer's production line to verify.
In 2008, the State Council approved the implementation of integrated circuit equipment specialization. More than 200 enterprises and institutions and more than 20,000 scientific research personnel participated in the research. In the past nine years, there have been more than 30 kinds of high-end equipment and hundreds of key materials products successfully developed and entered the domestic and overseas markets. They have filled the industrial chain gap from scratch.
Prior to the special implementation, almost all the materials required by China's integrated circuit industry were imported. At present, key materials such as specialty gases, targets, and chemicals have been developed and completed. Large-scale use of large-scale production lines has passed the examination and certification, and some products have entered overseas markets. Plastics, etc. have begun to enter the trial production of large production lines, under the guidance of special projects, a group of companies successfully listed.
The term "nuclear high base" sounds like "tall", but it is closely related to everyone's life. From the mobile phone to the computer, from the refrigerator to the car, and even every U disk, are inseparable from the chip and software. This is an abbreviation for core electronic devices, high-end general-purpose chips and basic software products. It is listed as 16 major scientific and technological specialties with manned space flight and lunar exploration projects.
Wei Shaojun, special technical engineer of "core electronic devices, high-end general-purpose chips and basic software products" and professor at Tsinghua University, said: "We have made major breakthroughs in the key technologies of core electronic devices, and our technological level has been fully enhanced. The gap with foreign countries has been determined before the special launch. The period of 15 years or more has been reduced to five years, and a series of major products have eased the problem of the "card neck" that has caused China's core electronic devices to rely on imports for a long time."
Cultivate Products and Make Big Enterprises: China's IC Industry Becomes WeakTowards 2020, China will continue accelerating the implementation of major national science and technology projects that have been deployed, focusing on key core technologies such as high-end general-purpose chips, high-end CNC machine tools, and integrated circuit equipment, forming strategic and strategic products, and nurturing new industries.
Zhang Boxu, director of the Beijing Economic and Information Commission, believes that the special model will adopt a new model in which the industrial chain, the innovation chain, and the financial chain effectively coordinate. The special and key regional industrial development plans will be coordinated, and will actively guide local and social industry investment and follow-up support. The industrialization of special achievements will help enterprises to grow bigger and stronger, form industrial scale, and increase the overall industrial strength.
At the same time, integrated circuit manufacturing equipment is used as a basic industry, and its results have led to a wide range of radiation. Using the core technologies that have been specifically acquired, radiation is applied to the pan-semiconductor manufacturing fields such as LEDs, sensors, photovoltaics, and liquid crystal panels, which has greatly increased the localization rate of equipment in related fields in China. In the fields of LED, photovoltaic and other fields, key equipment sets have been made domestically, domestic equipment has become the mainstream of the market, and the scale of LED lighting, photovoltaic and other industries has leapt to the top in the world.
Regarding future developments, Ye Tianchun introduced that special projects have been systematically deployed in 14 nanometer equipment, processes, packaging, and materials, and it is expected that the industry will be fully integrated by 2018. During the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, it will also focus on supporting the research and development of advanced technologies such as 7-5-nanometer technology and three-dimensional memory, supporting Chinese companies to have core competitiveness in the global industrial chain, realizing independent industrial development and forming distinctive advantages.
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